Lessons Learned and Next Steps in Energy Efficiency Measurement and Attribution: Energy Savings, Net to Gross, Non-Energy Benefits, and Persistence of Energy Efficiency Behavior

Date Published

November 1, 2009


This white paper examines four topics addressing evaluation, measurement, and attribution of direct and indirect effects to energy efficiency and behavioral programs:

  • Estimates of program savings (gross);
  • Net savings derivation through free ridership / net to gross analyses;
  • Indirect non-energy benefits / impacts (e.g., comfort, convenience, emissions, jobs); and
  • Persistence of savings.

Evaluation and attribution methods have reached a point that they must evolve in order to provide credible results for the next generation of programs. Two primary factors have complicated the methodologies that have been applied to energy efficiency programs:

  • Transition to more behavioral, outreach and other non-measure-based programs (education, advertising), making it especially hard to “count” impacts, and
  • Increased chatter in the marketplace, in which consumers may be influenced by any number of utility programs by the host/territorial utility (the “portfolio”) as well as influences from outside the territorial utility (national, neighboring programs, movies/media).



Skumatz Economic Research Associates, Inc.

Author Names:

Skumatz, Lisa